关于各种木材种类

硬木和软木有什么不同?

硬木 and soft wood look different and accept finishes differently.

硬木 是落叶, the botanical group of trees that have broad leaves, 生产水果或坚果, 通常在冬天休眠. There are hundreds of 硬木物种 in the United States; together they represent 40% of the trees in the United States. In contrast, softwoods, or conifers, have needles. 广泛使用的软木包括雪松、冷杉、铁杉、松树、红木和云杉.

Alder

A relative of birch, Alder grows from Alaska to Southern California. 它排在Oak和松树之后,是最常用于成品家具的木材.

  • 颜色: Consistent pale pinkish-brown to almost white.
  • 谷物: 没有明显的模式.
  • 特点: Good working properties, moderately lightweight, low shock resistance.
  • 完成: 表面光滑,耐污性好.

Ash

There are several species of American ash: black, brown and white. 是什么使它与众不同,使Ash烬有价值的许多特殊用途是它的特殊的灵活性. Ash is among the most easily steam-bent 硬木物种. 早期的风车是用Ash烬制成的. Ash is used extensively in the manufacture of sporting goods; for example, 棒球棒是用白Ash做的.

  • 颜色: Nearly pure lustrous white, ranging through cream to light brown.
  • 谷物: Attractive, straight, moderately open and pronounced.
  • 特点: 重, 硬, strong and 僵硬的 excellent bending qualities.
  • 完成: 很少涂漆,因为它的毛孔大,但可以很好地完成所有其他处理.

Aspen

在美国西部,颤杨和大齿杨都是很容易获得的硬木木材.S.

  • 颜色: 浅白色到浅棕色.
  • 谷物: Even, prominent, resembles oak and hickory; burls have a twisted, interwoven figure.
  • 特点: 重,硬,环多孔.
  • 完成: Ideal for non-penetrating finishes, such as water-based stains and paints.

Beech

与橡树和栗子有关的, Beech最常见于阿巴拉契亚山脉的高海拔地区. 美国Beech是一种中等高度的树,树皮光滑,优雅而迷人. It grows along mountain slopes and rich uplands in nearly pure stands. 它耐阴性好, 使它成为一种可以在更高物种的树冠下茁壮成长的森林树木. 美国Beech在保持其强度的同时,对蒸汽弯曲有很高的适应性, making it ideal bent-wood chairs and other bent-wood furniture. 它还具有优良的木材车削,耐磨,防腐性能好. 因为Beech木会随着磨损而变得光滑,所以它非常适合做抽屉边和抽屉架.

  • 颜色: 颜色范围从接近白色到深红褐色.
  • 谷物: 紧而直, 身材小巧,质地均匀, identified by its 黑暗 pores in conspicuous rays
  • 特点: 硬 and strong; good resistance to abrasive wear
  • 完成: 易于油漆、染色或漂白.

Birch

Yellow birch is a deciduous 硬wood that grows primarily in the upland, 东北部丘陵地带和湖州森林:有九种原产于北美的桦树, including the distinctive and familiar white-trunked paper birch. Yellow birch is the most common commercial lumber birch. 它的颜色很亮, yellowish-bronze-colored bark that peels in long, 细横条.

  • 颜色: 奶油色或略带红色的.
  • 谷物: 好的,通常是卷曲的或波浪状的.
  • 特点: 厚重、坚固、坚硬、质地均匀.
  • 完成: 耐油漆和污渍

Cherry

像所有的果树一样,Cherry属于玫瑰科,早在公元前400年就被使用了.C. by the Greeks and Romans for furniture making. Cherry帮助定义了美国的传统设计,因为殖民地的橱柜制造商认识到它卓越的木工品质. Today, cherry helps define Shaker, Mission and country styling. The wood's rich red-brown color deepens with age. 又小又黑的口香糖斑点更增添了它的趣味. Distinctive, unique figures and grains are brought out with quarter sawing. It has an exceptionally lustrous appearance that glows. 成品摸起来很光滑.

  • 颜色: Rich, reddish-brown; 黑暗ens considerably with age and exposure to sunlight.
  • 谷物: 直 and satiny; small gum pockets produce distinctive markings.
  • 特点: 轻,强,硬,相当硬.
  • 完成: Unsurpassed in its finishing qualities; its uniform texture takes a finish well.

Eucalyptus

The 硬wood eucalyptus genus represents more than 300 species. 它们已在南美、南非、欧洲和美国成功种植. Eucalyptus是一种可再生资源,在相对较短的收获周期内具有较高的生产力. The wood in these products comes from well managed forests, 根据森林管理委员会(FSC)的规则独立认证.

  • 颜色: Pinkish-brown; turns reddish-brown with age and exposure to light.
  • 特点: Strong, heavy; low maintenance; high oil content makes it resistant to decay and insects.
  • 谷物: 直、密、紧、轻.
  • 完成: Weathers to a soft gray; advisable to leave wood unfinished.

Hickory

A native American tree, hickories are members of the walnut family. Hickory is the 硬est, heaviest and strongest American wood in common use. 据说西行的拓荒者把山Hickory作为制造马车轮子的先决条件.

  • 颜色: White to tan to reddish-brown with inconspicuous fine brown lines.
  • 谷物: 细.
  • 特点: Extremely 艰难的 and resilient; even texture; 硬 and moderately heavy.
  • 完成: Welcomes a full range of medium to 黑暗 finishes and bleaching treatments.

Mahogany

红木是所有木材中的重量级,是最有价值的木材树种之一. 新型汽车最初完全用红木雕刻而成. 每一块, 从前保险杠到引擎, 指示板, 驱动轴, 回到箱子上的锁是由这种稳定的硬木制成的.

  • 颜色: Varies from light red or pale tan to a rich, 黑暗, 深红色或深金棕色, 取决于原产国.
  • 谷物: 一般直, 但因其数据而备受赞誉, 包括条纹, 罗伊, 卷曲的, 泡, 小提琴手和斑驳.
  • 特点: Extremely strong, 硬, stable and decay-resistant.
  • 完成: Finishes and stains to a beautiful natural luster.

Maple

The American species of maple are divided into two groups: 硬 maple, which includes sugar and black maple; and soft maple, 其中包括红枫和银枫. 直到世纪之交, the heels of women's shoes were made from maple, 20世纪20年代的飞机螺旋桨也是如此. 自早期殖民时期以来,Maple一直是美国家具制造商的最爱.

  • 颜色: 奶油色至浅红褐色.
  • 谷物: Usually straight, close; sometimes found with highly figured bird's-eye or burl grain.
  • 特点: 重, 硬, strong, 艰难的, 僵硬的; possesses a uniform texture; resistant to abrasion and indentation, making it ideal flooring as well as cutting boards and countertops.
  • 完成: Takes stain satisfactorily and polishes well.

Oak

红橡树和白橡树是美国最丰富的橡树.S. 硬木物种. 很难说出一种木材在家具和室内设计方面有着更悠久、更辉煌的历史. 橡树是早期英国工匠的最爱,也是美洲殖民者的珍贵材料. 白Oak只是美国本土86种橡树中的一种,但它却是美国最经典的橡树. Although prevalent throughout the eastern half of the United States, 从缅因州到德克萨斯州, white oak lumber comes chiefly from the south, 南大西洋和中部各州, 包括阿巴拉契亚山脉南部. 红橡树只生长在北美,比任何其他种类的橡树都更靠北. 红橡树是一种生长缓慢的大树,需要20年才能成熟,平均寿命为300年. It’s great for flooring, furniture, cabinets, ships and decorative woodwork.

  • 颜色: White oak ranges from nearly white sapwood to a 黑暗er, gray-brown heartwood; Red oak ranges from nearly white cream color to a warm, 淡褐色带红色的心材.
  • 谷物: Distinguished by rays that reflect light and add to its attractiveness; depending on the way the logs are sawn into timber (rift-cut, 平切, 平的锯, 旋切, 住宿), many distinctive and sought-after patterns emerge: flake figures, 销的条纹, 细纹, 叶状谷物和水样.
  • 特点: 重, strong, 硬, 僵硬的, 耐曝晒, 伟大的耐磨性, 能很好地固定钉子和螺丝.
  • 完成: Stain beautifully with a wide range of finish tones.

Parawood

Parawood is native to the Amazon Region of South America. Information about Parawood can be traced back to Christopher Columbus. 在他第二次访问南美期间, he wondered at the heavy black ball the natives were using in games. This black ball was made from the vegetable gum of the Parawood tree. Later historians would also marvel at this substance, which bounced so much when thrown to the ground it appeared to be alive. 19世纪,一位名叫亨利·威克姆的英国人把一些种子运到英国发芽. The seeds germinated and these small seedlings were transported to the Malay Peninsula for planting; there to start the Great Rubber Plantations of Malaysia. 经过25到30年的乳胶生产, tapped in the same manner syrup is tapped from the Maple trees, the tree ceases to produce sufficient quantities of latex. 这棵树被砍下来用于制造精美的家具,然后在原来的地方种上一棵新树.

  • 颜色: 淡黄色.
  • 谷物: 类似Mahogany的开放纹理.
  • 特点: 很硬的木头.
  • 完成: 污渍很均匀.

松(放射虫纲)

辐射松是一种来自南美和新西兰的人工林种植的木材,比其他松树更坚硬,结也更少.

  • 颜色: 淡奶油.
  • 谷物: 直.
  • 特点: 甚至纹理.
  • 完成: 大多数成品都很好.

松(南黄)

南方黄松实际上是一个主要由四种树木组成的物种群:火炬松(Pinus taeda), 长叶松(palustris), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and slash pine (Pinus eliottii) Loblolly Pine is the most important and predominant of the four; it grows throughout the Atlantic Coastal Plain, 通常在商业摊位上, from Maryland south through all the Carolinas and Georgia into Florida, 向西到东德克萨斯. It is classified as a 硬 pine and is 硬er than white pine.

  • 颜色: 温暖的淡黄色带棕色结.
  • 谷物: High density, uneven; distinctive light and 黑暗 pattern.
  • 特点: 硬.
  • 完成: 大多数成品都很好; with some stains, a sealer helps prepare the wood to achieve a more even look.

松(白色)

Found in the uplands of Newfoundland and Manitoba, south throughout New England and the Great Lakes Region to South Carolina, White Pine is the state tree of Maine and Michigan. A large tree with relatively few horizontal big limbs, the Eastern white pine is one of the tallest timber trees in the Northeast.

  • 颜色: White to pale yellow with a reddish tinge; 黑暗ens with age and air exposure, 最终变成深橙色.
  • 谷物: 轻、软、直,质地均匀.
  • 特点: Works well and is easily shaped with hand and power tools; accepts many types of glue well, 使粘接紧密.
  • 完成: 大多数成品都很好; with some stains, a sealer helps prepare the wood to achieve a more even look.

Poplar

又称黄杨, 郁金香Poplar, 郁金香木和山核桃树, Poplar长得比美国任何一种树都高.S. 硬木物种. Yellow poplar grows quickly into a tall straight tree. It is found alone in open, rich, moist soil. 由于成熟快,杨木的木材重量轻,对硬木来说柔软. It is strong, durable and seasons well, resisting warping once it is dried. 因为树干没有四肢或树枝,除了最顶端,木头没有结.

  • 颜色: 白色到淡黄色的, sometimes with a slightly greenish cast and occasional 黑暗 purplish streaks.
  • 谷物: 直.
  • 特点: Comparatively uniform texture; light to medium weight; excellent strength and stability; cuts and sands well; keeps its edge and resists splitting.
  • 完成: Stains well and can easily be made to resemble walnut or maple; often painted because it takes paint exceptionally well.